Govermental Terms & Concept D, E, F, G, H.

DECENTRALIZATION: This process is defined as one in which power are shared among the central government and it’s component units.

DELEGATED LEGISLATION: Acts of legislative bodies which leave wide discretion in implementation to the executive’s appointed officials.

 DECREE: These are laws that are made by the military (Khaki) men.

 DEMOCRACY: A system in which adult qualified citizens are allowed to partake in decision making directly or indirectly through an electoral college.

 DISENFRANCHISEMENT: To deprive an individual of this right to vote or be voted for.

 EGALITARIAN: The term used to describe the equality of all individuals. It usually refers to some form or concept of political equality, but can also refers to economic equality.

. ELITE PARTY: The phrase used to describe the kind of political party which draws its membership from a particular group of ‘superior’ people, who claim to speak or act on behalf of all citizens.
Generally, membership of the elite is acquired either on account of inscriptive qualifications (i.e. by virtue of inherited or traditional criteria of merit) or on account of prospscriptive criteria of merit (i.e. achievement); or by a mixture of both types of qualifications.

ETHNIC: The shared physical traits and modes of thought of members of a group (or ‘nationality’) which evolve from a common ancestry and culture tradition.

ETHNIC GROUP: A cultural group. A people with common traditions, linguistic and social background.

 EX-POST-FACTO LEGISLATION: Legislation passed ‘After the fact’; generally it refers to laws passed to deal with a situation or behaviour, which was not illegal or punishable by the state at the time that the situation arose or the behaviour occurred.

ECOWAS: A sub-regional organization called the economic community of West Africa State and formed 1975.

EDICT: These are laws made by a regional government.

ELECTION: This is a democratic means of choosing or selecting representative into political offices or government positions by the means of voting.

ELECTORAL COLLEGE: These are body of people elected directly by the people to elect leaders or representatives on their behalf.

 ELECTORAL PROCESS: These are the various processes that are involved during the conduct of election.

ELECTORATE: That individual that is responsible for the voting or electing of the candidates.

ENFRANCHISEMENT: This is the right an individual possess to vote or to be voted for.

EXCLUSIVE POWER: These are powers and functions in the constitution that are exclusively reserved for the Federal (central) government in a federal state i.e. creating of money.

 EXPATRIATE: An individual working abroad and employed for his special ability..

EXTERNAL AFFAIRS MINISTR: An executive governmental department responsible for the conduct and overseeing the relationship of a country with other countries,

EXTERNAL SOVEREIGNTY: This is the supreme power of a state to manage affairs within totalitarian integrity and without any external influence.

FASCISM: A form of government propagated by Benito Mussolini in Italy by 1922, a totalitarian or authoritarian government based on an ideology which fosters a rule by a supreme, powerful dictator.

FEDERAL SYSTEM: A system whereby powers are constitutional shared between the central (federal) government and it’s components(Regional) states.

 FEUDAL LORD: These are the people that controlled the means of production (land) in the feudal system in mediaeval Europe.

FLEXIBLE CONSTITUTION: An amendment process of the constitution in which amendment process can always be easily done.

FIRST-PASS THE POST: An electoral system whereby the candidate with the highest number of vote automatically becomes the winner.

 FOREIGN POLICY: Is referred to objectives, interest, principles, norms and resources which are brought together and used in making decision with respect to external environment.

FRANCO-PHONE: These are French speaking countries in which French is a second Mother tongue i.e. Togo.

 FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS: These are privileges or rights granted to humans to be enjoyed by them and not abuse i.e. freedom of speech.

 FEDERATION: That form of government which has two levels of authority existing side by side, I some cases sharing powers in other cases not. Usually several local or regional governments exist in a semi-independent relationship with a central government.

 FEUDALISM: That form of political organization that existed in medieval Europe whereby the Lord and his vassals had reciprocal obligations. The vassal owed allegiance to his lord because he used land which the lord or noble either owned or controlled.

GERRYMANDERING: This is the act of manipulating constituency delimitation with the purpose of favouring a given political party in the election.

GAZETTE: A government document or publication containing the list of government appointments, legal notes and promotions etc.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY: An organ in the United Nations Organization Comprising all representatives from all member states (five representatives each).

 GOVERN ATE: This is a female ruler or a governor.

 GOVERNMENT CORPORATION: An enterprise engaged in providing a public service (usually of an economic character) which is owned and chartered by the state.

GERONTOCRACY : This is government by elders, the governing group comes to power by virtue of their age.

HABEAS CORPU: An order or a writ by a judge to the executive arm of government product or release a prisoner or detainee.

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