Government Terms & Concept O, P, Q, R.

 OMBUDSMAN: An officer in the government who is independent of the executive, andean hear complaints or appeals from citizen concerning alleged or proven injustices committed by the executive.

 O.A.U.: An African organization comprising all sovereign and independent state in African and was formed in 1963 with the name organization of African Unity and the name has been changed to African Unity,

OPEC: Organization of petroleum exporting countries formed in 1960 and aimed at protecting the interest of crude oil producing states.

 OPINION POLL: A measure or means through which the opinion or view of the general public are been gotten on state matters by means of questioning.

 POLITICAL AUTHORITY: Refers to the sanctions and beliefs which legitimize government. Traditionally, religion provided the most important sanctions; today the law and the secular ideal of nationalistic loyalty provide the most important justification for a government’s authority.

PRAGMATIC: A policy or mode of behaviour which is based on realistic considerations about human beings; the relevant question is, ‘can it be done? Pragmatism is generally opposed to idealism which appeals to people’s highest (and often unattainable) moral aspirations.

PRIMUS INTER PARES: A Latin phrase which means first among equals’. It is often used to describe the position of the Prime Minister within the cabinet in the parliamentary system of government.

 PALACE-COUP: A non-violent but sudden change of government through military coup d’ et at by some few members of the same group.

 PARASTATAL: An institution indirectly controlled by the state, established for a specific purpose but different from a ministry of government.

PARLIAMENT: The institution of government responsible for making of laws.

 PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT: A system of government where the head of state differs from head of government, the latter is referred to as Prime Minister, example, Britain.

 PARTY BRANCH: One of the several units of organization of political party, usually formed at regional level in a state.

PARTY SYSTEM: A sub-system of the larger political system; the political parties arrangement in terms of numbers, ideologies and functions in a political system of a state.

 PERSONA-NON-GRATA: A person or diplomat who is not acceptable to a foreign government.

 PLEBISCITE: A direct vote or election of a people on a special point; decision made upon political questions by the electorate through election.

PLUTOCRACY: A form of government based on wealth or formed by the rich people in a society.

POLITICAL ANIMALS: A social animals as proposed by Aristotle; one who is enthusiastic about or involved in politics.

 POLITICAL CULTURE: The values, beliefs and attitudes that condition political behaviour or the reaction of a people towards political matters o issues.

 POLITICAL SCIENCE: An academic course or study in the science of government, as to its principles, aims and methods.

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION: A continuous and long developments process though which an individual or a citizen acquires a complex f beliefs, values, attitudes, customs and information which helps him comprehend, evaluate and relate or identify with political system. The transfer of political cultural or behaviour from one generation to another.

 POLITICAL SOVEREIGNTY: A power of a people to choose a government for themselves, expressed through their votes.

 POLITICAN: A person who makes a profession or a game of politics. A person versed ion the science of government or a person engaged in political life or statesmanship.

PRAGMATISM: A philosophical method, that makes practical consequences the test of truth. A treatment of history with an eye to cause and effect, and practical lessons.

PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT: The system of government where the head of state is also the head of government. Example USA, South Africa and Nigeria.

PRESSURE GROUP: An association of people with the aim of influencing government policies towards the group’s direction.

PRIME MINISTER: The head of government in the parliamentary system of government example, Britain.

 PRIMARY ELECTION: An election conducted within a party to select the candidate to represent a political party in the general election.

PRIMUS-INTR-PARES: The appellation used for the Prime Minister in the parliamentary system of government meaning the (Prime Minister) is first among equals i.e. his ministers or cabinet members.

 PRIVY COUNCIL: The Britain highest court; the highest Court of Appeal in all British West Africa before and few years after the independence of the British West Africa colonies, (the court is headed by the Lord President of the Council).

POWER: The ability or capacity to compel obedience or make others act in ones desired manner or way.

PROLETARIAT: Marxist term used to describe those that sell their labour for wags in capitalist states; the oppressed class in capitalist states or the class that controls the state in socialist or states.

 PROPAGANDA: A deliberately planned and systematic use of information and opinions through suggestion, information media and psychological techniques with a view to altering and controlling opinion, ideas and values.

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION: An electoral system intended to give parties in an elected body a representative as nearly as possible proportional to their voting strength.

PROTECTORATE: A region or territory under the protection of another state, which is administered without annexation and admitting inhabitant to citizenship.

 PROCESS OF ASSIMILATION: The means by which one racial, linguistic or cultural group becomes fused with another. One of the most common means is intermarriage which occurs when conquerors settle down to live with the people they have defeated.

PUBLIC CORPORATION: A government established or owned business or enterprise created to provide essential services to the public at the lowest possible cost.

 PUBLIC OPINION: The end product or sum total or a public discussion on matter which affects a community or the general public.

QUASI-JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS: Those activities which are authorised by the executive through the establishment of a commission. Quasi-judicial functions are legalistic in that witnesses can be subpoenaed, evidence heard, and fines assessed.

QUASI-MILITARY UNITS: Groups of men in a state who are part of the regular armed forces and are not considered as ‘professionals’. In some states, these units have been formed by political parties rather than by the government.

 RECALL: To bring back by a summon an ambassador for performing below expectation; also, a democratic process of removing an elected representative in the parliament by his constituency through vote.

RECESS: An interval or holiday between a parliamentary session.

 RE-TAPISM: Rigid formality of intricate official routine; also unnecessary delay in implementing and taking decision in the civil service structure.

 REFERENDUM: The principle or practice of submitting a political question directly to the vote of the entire electorate, the decision is reached by Yes or Nor.

 REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT: A system of government where there is a periodic change of government through free and fair democratic election.

RESIDUAL LIST: The area in a federal constitution meant for the regional or state Government to make laws on.

 RETURNING OFFICER: An electoral officer who presides at an election.

REVOLUTION: A great upheaval; a complete or radical change in government, example French revolution of 1789 that led to the overthrow of old French monarchy and absolutism.

RIGID CONSTITUTION: A constitution in which the process of amendment is difficult or complex, normally requiring two-third majority of legislative consent.

RULE OF LAW: A fundamental principle of a democratic government as proposed by A.V. Dicey; a constitutional doctrine which emphases the supremacy of the law, and that nobody should be above the law.

RUN OF LAW: The second election conducted after the first initial stalemate in which no candidate possessed the absolute majority required to win the election.

 RED TAPE: A term used to describe the administrative rules ad proceedings laid down by a bureaucracy to which those who have dealings with the bureaucracy must conform.

 RUN OFF ELECTION: The second election conducted after the first initial stalemate in which no candidate possessed the absolute majority required to win the election.

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