Governmental Terms & Concept I, J, K, L, M, N.

IMPEACHMENT: This is a process of removing an elected lead or a representative of the executive arm by the legislative body.

IMPERIALISM: A new form of colonialisation that involves the dominating of the economically sector of a particular sate by another state.

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE: Is the judiciary arm for the U.N.O. and located at Hague in Netherlands, responsible for resolution of disputes among nations.

INDIGNANT: French colonial law in French West Africa whereby subjects were given summary by French officials.

INTERNAL SOVEREIGNTY: This is the absolute power of the state to exercise supreme power over it’s people of a particular state.

 INTERIM GOVERNMENT: A caretaker government or a temporary government

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: An association of different states cutting across countries for a particular mutual benefit.

INJUNCTION: A court order restraining or preventing illegal act until the final determination of the suit.

INDIRECT RULE: Rule of colonial authorities through a traditional political system i.e. Emirs of Northern Nigeria.

INDUSTRIALIZATION: The use of power-driven machines to replace human labour so that man is increasingly able to exploit natural resources.

INFRASTRUCTURE: A term to describe fixed installations such as roads, railways, and ports. It also has been used to describe the major social institutions of a state, such as the legal system, the form of government, or the economic system.

INTEREST GROUP: A voluntary grouping of people who come together in order to advance or defend a common interest.

JUDICIAL PRECEDENCE: A judgment by a judge that has the force of law, and which has become a reference point for subsequent judgment.

JUDICIARY: The organ of government responsible for the interpretation of law and resolution of disputes.

JURISPRUDENCE: The area of law concerned with the science or knowledge of law.

JURY: A body of adjudicators and revolvers of dispute.

JUDICIAL REVIEW: The principle of American constitutional practice whereby the judicial branch and especially the supreme court can review the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislative branch.

KAKISTOCRCY: A form of government organized by the worst set of individuals in a particular state.

KLEPTOCRACY: Government formed by thieves in a particular state.

 LEAGUE OF NATIONS: This is the first international organization formed immediately after the first World War and was formed by 1919 to ensure peace and co-operation among nations.

LEGAL SOVEREIGNTY: The power of the government to exercise supreme power as an agent of the state on behalf of the people.

 LOBBYING: One of the means used by pressure groups to influence governmental policies to suit their members interest.

 LAW: That body of written and unwritten rules or customs, which regulates the public and private behaviour of people fathered into social units (family, clan, tribe), or into political units (states).

 LEGITIMACY: The acceptance by the people of a state; and the .acknowledgment by other states that their government came to power through a political process which was acceptable to their political traditions and values.

 LORDLUGARD: Governor of northern Nigeria in the early 20lh century, and a decade later Governor of all Nigeria. He is famous as the foremost advocate of indirect rule in English-speaking West Africa.

MALFEASANCE OF OFFICE: A term meaning personal conduct by which a man abuses his professional or public responsibilities. Usually this occurs when he neglects his duties or sues his official authority in ways not authority by law.

MARXIST (OR COMMUNIST) SOCIALISM: A society based on public ownership of the means of production and ruled by the communist Party on behalf of the proletariat, and which is geared towards the overthrow and eradication of capitalism and the bourgeoisie.

MINORITY GROUP: A minority can be a small tribe which is part of a political (or national) unit dominated by a larger tribe.

MAGNACARTA: This is the document that introduces rights in England.

MANDATED TERRITORY: Territory seized by the League of nations in 1919 given or assigned to certain state to govern and grant independence when due i.e. Namibia.

MANIFESTO: Apolitical party plains, declaring intentions, motives and programmes of a party to the electorate.

 MONARCH: A system of government controlled by Akingorqueen.

 NATION: Any aggregation of people having lie institutions and customs and a sense of social homogeneity and mutual interest… the body of inhabitants of a country united under a single independent government.

NATION STATE: The main political unit of the 20’h Century whereby the inhabitants of a specified territory give their primary loyalty to the state and abode b the laws set forth and executed by the government. They share a common heritage and contemplate a common future.

NATIONALIZATION: The taking over’ by the government of industrial and commercial enterprises on behalf of the people of the state.

NATIONALISM: The desire of a people to work for unity and political independence within the framework of the nation-state and to put loyalty to the state above all other loyalties.

 NATIONALIST MOVEMENT: The drive by may groups in former colonial territories t throw off imperialist rule; and, in the case of minorities who felt oppressed, campaigns to achieve independence from the central; government.

NEQ-CQLONIALISM: A political term which refers to the way in which some foreign governments and firms try to influence the direction of economic and political development in the new states, so as to further western or expatriate interest.

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: This is the law making organ in Nigeria and it is the combination of two legislative bodies in Nigeria (house of senate and House of Representative).

N.A.T.O.: A military pact jointly signed by some developed countries and spearheaded by the United State called North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NAZISM: An ideology popularized by Adolf Hitler of Germany which was base on dictatorship and totalitarianism of the Aryan race.

NEPOTISM: Politics of Favourism, trying to favour someone or some group of people only in a particular state.

NON-ALIGNMENT: A third world movement by under developed countries, formed in Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Simply aimed at not take sides in times of war n the international politics.

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