Govermental Terms & Concept A, B, C..

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: The phrase used to describe that body of rules and regulations which are made by the executive branch of government.

AFRICAN NATIONALISM: The desire of African people to achiever both external and internal sovereignty over territories which had come under the domination of European colonial power.

AFRICAN SOCIALISM: This is used to describe the characteristically communal organization of traditional African Society.

ARBITRARY POWER : This power is exercised without any form of restricting or any form of checks.

ABSOLUTE MAJORITY: This can be defined as an electoral system in which the candidate with the highest number of vote is declared winner.

ALKALI COURTS: Those courts in the Islamic areas of Nigeria

 ABSOLUTE MONARCHY: Defined as a system in which power are been exercise by a monarch and such powers are not been restricted.

 AUTHORITY: The ability of the government of a state or of those who control the government of a village, tribe or other form of community to obtain obedience from the Citizen of the state or members of the community.

ACEPHALOUS SOCIETY: This society is one in which, it is headless which means no definite head or traditional ruler.

AUTHORITARIAN RULE: A system of government which only allows for the minimum of choice by the inhabitants as to who will govern them and how they will be ruled by them.

ADJOURNMENT: A term used in the Legislative arm and used in postponing proceedings to continue in any other stated time.

 ADJUDICATION: The constitutional function of the judicial arm of government to pronounce judgment.

ARISTOCRACY: Is defined as a form of oligarchy in which few noble elites in a society are allowed to rule.

ASSIMILATION: A policy adopted by French colonial and administrators in which the French culture was integrated and absorbed to their colonies.

 BELIEFS, NOMS AND ATTITUDES: The values existing in a society which both regulate and express man’s relationship to the supernatural and to his fellow men.

BAILIFF: In official in courts that issues writes and announces the arrival of a judge.

BICAMERAL LEGISLATE: A legislature which has two houses or chambers, each is competent to legislate exclusively regarding certain matters but, jointly concerning others.

 BICEPHALOUS: The opposite of a cephalous and one in which there is a definitive head or traditional ruler.

 BILLS: Is defined as a proposal law, passed by the legislators to the executive assign.

 BUREAUCRACY: A bureaucracy is the organization of people and functions in a very formal hierarchical and planned manner, so that there is a complete divorce between the bureaucrat’s private and working class.

 BOURGEOISIE: The term used by Karl Marx in describing those that owned and controlled the means of production and distribution.

 BY-LAWS: Laws made by local government within their different localities.

BY-ELECTION: This is a second election conducted to fill a recent position in the legislature.

CABINET SHUFFLE: In parliamentary government this refers to change in cabinet posts which occurs as a result of new political circumstances.

 CALIPHATE: It is what the pre-colonial Hausa state was transformed into after the take over by the Fulani and was governed by a caliph.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCES: This term is used to describe the process by which matter move away from the nucleus. In human affairs, this means that power may move away from the central government to local government or provincial authorities.

 CENTRIPETAL FORCES: In this, matter moves to nucleus. In human affairs it means that the control government gain more power of the expense of local authorities.

CAPITALISM: A social, economic and political system in which both the investment in and the ownership of the means of production, its regulation,1 distribution, as well as the exchange of what over wealth is produced are in the hands of private corporations and individuals.

CARPET-CROSSING: This is a process in the parliament where by a candidate changes from political party to another after being elected.

CHARISMATIC LEADER: Those leaders with a special authority because their personalities dominate others.

 CHECK & BALANCES: The provisions in the constitutions which prevent any one of the three branches of the national government from dominating the others.

CIVIL SERVICE: The professional cadre of people who are responsible for running the affairs of state, they operates the machinery of government.

COMMUNITY: Group of people who are dependent on one another for their material, physical and spiritual well being.

 CONFEDERATION: A form of government which is composed of strong regional organs of government and a very weak central authority.

 CONSTITUTION: Is defined as a document which outlines the basic political institutions and principles to be applied in governing a state.

COALITION GOVERNMENT: This is the coming together of two or more political parties form a government.

COLD WAR: This was an ideological war between Eastern and Western bloc.

 COLONIALISM: Is defined as the domination of ones Socio-economical and political system by foreigners in ones territory.

COLONY: A territory for settlement for some set of people.

COMPRADOR-BOURGEOISIE: An agent who represents the interest of foreign power in his or her state.

 COMMITTEE STAGE: This is a stage of law making in the parliament in which the bill is being verified.

 COMMUNISM: Is the highest stage of Socialism according to Karl Marx and a form in which all the means of production and distribution are totally controlled by the; state.

 CONCURRENT LIST: The list in the Federal Constitution where functions are shed by both the legislature and executive of government.

 COMMUNALISM: A socio political and economical system in which the means of production and distribution are collective owned and distributed.

CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: This is a type of monarch in which the powers of the monarch is being restricted or limited by the constitution.

 COUP D’ ETAT: This is defined as a violent means of over throwing or taking over power from a particular government, mostly partied by the Khaki boys.

 CROWN COLONY: These are territory owned and controlled by British government through conquest. (Lagos Colony)

 CULTURE: The characteristic material, artistic and linguistic forms of life created by different people.

 CUSTOM: Long-established beliefs, valves convention and patterns of behaviour all that relates to the past.

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