The following deposits may be found in the urine:
a mixture of epithelial cell, Tamm-Horsefal proteins, other chemicals and cells. The shape is cylindrical; taking the shape of the tubule. usually present in disease, If hyaline (transparent) it is found in normal urine after exercise.
maybe granular i,e. covered with fine granules usually of phosphates in alkaline urine
Erythrocytes May be:
intact i.e. about 8 microns
swollen: thin circles
crenated: small cells with serrated edges.
Not normally found in the urine May be present in urine during menstruation. Few cells make the urine “smoky”
Frank blood is haematuria; the cells settle on standing.
Few intact, shrunken or distorted granular cells: infection.
Pus: clumps of degenerated cells: more severe infection.
The cells(erythrocytes or leucocytes) are expressed as the number counted per field of the microscope at X 40 magnification i.e.
0 to 10 Normal
10 to 20 Moderate
Over 20 Many
Epithelial cell: usually squamous: Large rectangurar-shaped cell usually shed from the ureter or vagina; present with leucocytes.
other cells of various shapes and sizes; shed from the bladder
or pelvis of the kidney; present usually without leucocytes.
Yeast: various sizes: some looking like erythrocytes but more oval Some budding may be seen. If found” suspect glucosuria.
Trichomonas: Round, motile cells with visible flagella. Usually from vagina.
Spermatozoa : Small head with long flagella; motile in fresh urine.
Parasites: Eggs and larva of shistosoma haematobium or of micrifilaria.
Crystal : Various geometric shapes e.g. uric acid in acid urine(reddish) Envelope shaped or whole peanut shaped e.g. calcium oxalate
in acid urine
Rectangular or fern-leaf shaped: triple phosphates in neutra or alkaline urine
Millet or corn shaped: calcium phoosphate in neutral or alkaline urine.
Star shaped: calcium caronate will dissolve in 10 percent acetic acid, giving off gas
Prism shaped: calcium sulphate separate or in buddles in acid urine.
Debris : Amorphous whitish granules of phosphates, found in alkaline urine. 1 drop of l\oh acetic acid dissolves the deposit.
Urates : Small yellowish granules in clusters. Found in urine kept in the refrigerator. Not soluble in acetic acid.
Cystine : Colourless hexagonal plates. Found in cystinuria.
Cholesterol: Colourless squares with notches. Found in acid urine. Soluble in ether.
Bilirubin : Brownish tiny crystals like beads or needles, Urine test for bilirubin will be positive
Drugs: Various shapes. Usually sulfonamides. Take drug history.Important to notice because of damage to the kidney